What alloys are common in flooded cell batteries?
PB, PBO2, H2SO4; some cells have selenium, calcium, or other additives in the plates for their performance characteristics.
What are flooded lead acid batteries?
Batteries that are filled with a liquid electrolyte and the cells are vented to atmospheric pressure through a vent cap.
What are good batteries for a substation?
Both Lead-Acid and Ni-Cad batteries are used in substation applications.
What are stationary batteries?
A stationary battery is a battery system that is permanently installed in a fixed racking system for providing DC power to equipment in the event of an AC electrical failure. Typically these systems are 120 VDC.
What are the best battery racks?
Battery racks must meet the seismic requirements of the location where they will be installed.
What are the features of “smart chargers”?
Smart chargers are those with built-in features that adjust the charger output for operating conditions such as temperature compensation, or those capable of charging different types of batteries from a single charger.
What are valve regulated batteries?
A sealed battery which has a pressure relief valve capable of opening to relieve over pressure due to overcharging.
What batteries require hydrogen sensors?
All batteries produce hydrogen as part of the charging process. Hydrogen production is greatly increased when the cell reaches the gassing voltage, which is normally about 2.33 volts per cell for Lead-Acid and 1.42 volts per cell for Ni-Cad.
What battery requires hydrogen monitoring?
Any system or set of batteries that are going to be on continuous charge in any unmanned area for a period of time.
What do batteries do in a substation?
Typically, a substation battery is used for supplying DC power to emergency safety circuits, emergency DC loads, pumps etc. in the event of a loss of normal AC power.
What do you sense in a battery room?
Temperature and hydrogen concentration are typically what are monitored.
What does “10 year floating design life” mean?
That the design specifications for that product are that the battery has a projected life span of 10 years of constant float service without any discharge cycles.
What electrolyte is used in maintenance-free lead batteries?
H2SO4 – Diluted sulfuric acid.
What eye wash station is required at charging stations?
Eye wash stations are required in all charging areas, designated battery rooms, and whereever else battery service is performed.
What gases will the batteries emit?
During charge, both Oxygen and Hydrogen are released from the plates. In addition, Hydrogen Sulfide can be produced during overcharging or gassing and forming charges of batteries.
If a battery is subjected to contaminated electrolyte, it may also produce chlorine gas, arsenic or other hazardous gases due to the contaminants.
What is a battery jar monobloc?
“Monobloc” is a term used to describe a number of battery cells formed into a single molded case. Examples are 3 cells in a 6 volt battery or 6 cells in a 12 volt car battery.
What is a battery load bank?
A resistive device which can be connected to an individual battery, and/or entire battery system, and draws a load current from the battery.
What is a battery washing system?
Used in motive power industry, a washing system is a fixed or portable unit that is used to wash dirt and acid build-up off the tops and surfaces of the battery.
What is a charge rectifier?
A Charger / Rectifier is any electronic device or component that is used to convert AC single or 3 phase electricity into a constant regulated DC voltage.
What is a DC plant?
DC Plant refers to a Battery System installed in a fixed location. It is comprised of the Battery, Charger, Isolation Breakers, and other controls needed to operate the system.
What is a good battery analyzer for industrial batteries?
Internal resistance testers will measure individual cells; load banks will test entire batteries.
What is a high rate battery?
High rate batteries are designed and built to provide short duration, high discharge rates. They are constructed of a larger number of thinner plates to develop high current ratings for short durations, typically less than 15 minutes.
What is a hydrogen gas detector?
An electronic device mounted at the highest point in a battery room that will monitor the percentage of Hydrogen gas volume in the air surrounding the detector.
What is a hydrogen sensor?
The actual sensing or measuring device in a hydrogen gas detector.
What is a manual activated exhaust fan in a UPS room?
An exhaust fan that must be manually switched on to get exhaust air flow in the UPS room.
What is a rod or plate in a battery?
A plate in the battery is where the active materials are manufactured which react with the electrolyte to form the chemical reactions for charge and discharge.
What is a safe hydrogen level in a battery storage room?
Hydrogen concentrations should never be allowed to exceed 1% in concentration. Hydrogen gas can be explosive in concentrations as low as 4%.
What is a sandwich style pocket plate?
“Sandwich style” refers to the assembly of the plates in stacks of alternating positive and negative plates separated by matting or insulated separator materials.
What is a three phase battery?
There is no such thing as a three phase battery. “3-phase” is a reference to three phase AC power.
What is a UVR for battery disconnect?
Under Voltage Release, a device which will cause the battery disconnect to open should the DC voltage supplied to the UV coil not be present.
What are AT10 chargers ?
AT 10 is a Single Phase AC Charger with optional features.
What is battery design run time?
Batteries are rated in either Watts per cell or in Ah. Run time is based upon the load demand and how long that specific battery will supply that load current until the battery reaches a set cut off voltage.
What is battery discharge test in a substation?
A load test of the entire battery system, based upon the manufacturer’s ratings, to determine what percentage of capacity the system operates at present time.
What is a battery water deionizer?
A filter and deionizing system that filters out impurities from water passing through it.
What is best way to monitor hydrogen gas in a storage area?
Install H2 detectors.
What is charger ventilation station?
A forced air ventilation system used to remove gases produced during battery charging from the charging area or room.
What is commissioning a power system network?
A methodical inspection and test procedure performed by the manufacturer to ensure the complete operation and integrity of the system.
What is configuration of VRLA battery installation?
The proper connection of batteries into strings and parallel banks.
What is DC upgrade and battery bank replacement?
Replacement of a battery system with either new batteries or batteries rated for new requirements.
What are fiber nickel cadmium batteries?
Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries constructed with fiber plate technology.
What is glass mat regulated?
AGM; it is a valve regulated lead acid battery where the acid is absorbed in a glass matting material placed between the plates.
What is a “high rate” battery?
A battery which is designed for short duration high discharge current draws.
What is inside a nickel wet cell battery?
Plates are made of Nickel and Cadmium. An electrolyte of Potassium Hydroxide is used.
What is “pocket plate”?
Active material of battery plates is pocketed.
What is SBS in Liebert?
A Powersafe SBS model battery manufactured by Enersys.
What is sealed maintenance-free nickel cadmium battery?
A Ni-Cd battery that is not vented and uses the principles of recombination like VRLA batteries do.
What is a storage battery?
Any battery that is used for storing DC energy as a reserve source of power.
What is suspended electrolyte?
The acid is suspended in a gel, which means the gel or paste aids in keeping the acid in contact with the plates.
What is a telecom power system?
Typically 24 or 48 volt DC battery systems designed for long duration high amp draw protection for loss of normal AC power.
What is the free sealed lead acid battery?
Maintenance-free, does not require make up of electrolyte over the life of the battery.
What is the main purpose of a standby battery system?
To provide DC voltage and current to load equipment during a loss of normal AC power sources.
What is the meaning of VRLA 600ah?
Sealed VRLA Battery rated for 600AH (amp hours).
What is the size of a wet cell battery?
Varies with the rating of the battery.
What are tubular batteries?
Plate construction is formed of tubes filled with active material. The tubular shapes give an increased surface area which allows more acid contact area and higher ratings for the same size battery.
What is tubular battery technology?
A method of plate formation in which the active materials are encapsulated in tubes.
What are two tier battery racks?
A rack system where batteries are installed in two separate rows, one atop the other separated by space for maintenance of the lower row.
What temperature should 2v DC plant batteries be?
Optimal temperature is 77 F. Range is 68 to 84 degrees outside of this range, charge voltage must be compensated for temperature.
What is a load test on a battery?
A specific current is drawn from the battery to determine if it will supply its rated capacity.
What is the ah/hr for sealed lead calcium, vrla, etc.?
The number of Amps a battery is rated for a given number of hours.